Citología en Base Líquida

La citología en base líquida busca evitar los resultados falsos negativos (falta de identificación de las células anormales, cuando están presentes) de la citología tradicional porque brinda mejores resultados, en la detección de las lesiones cervicales precancerosas.

DIFERENCIAS ENTRE LA CITOLOGÍA TRADICIONAL Y LA DE BASE LÍQUIDA

La citología en base líquida está en proceso de reemplazo de la tradicional (también denominada Papanicolaou) en algunos países, y en el LABORATORIO CLÍNICO BIOREFERENCIA contamos con esta técnica. La citología en base líquida no se hace a partir de un proceso de frotis como la tradicional.

La citología es un análisis que detecta el cáncer del cuello de la matriz (útero) y de las lesiones que lo preceden. Se conoce como papanicolaou.

Procedimientos:

  1. El convencional, se toma la muestra con un cepillo, se extiende en un portaobjetos de cristal y se procede a su respectivo análisis.
  2. El procedimiento en base mediante varias etapas, se obtiene una lámina o una sola capa de células, lo que permite una mayor detección de lesiones neoplásicas o sus precursoras. La toma de la muestra es exactamente igual al método tradicional, pero el laboratorio no realiza ningún extendido, sino que introduce el escobillón del cepillo en un frasco con conservador y se hace el análisis patológico.

Ventajas de la citología en base líquida sobre la citología tradicional:

  1. Captura la totalidad de la muestra
  2. Elimina la fijación deficiente
  3. Elimina la existencia de elementos “distractores” para la interpretación patológica
  4. Distribuye en forma aleatoria las células en una monocapa
  5. En cuanto a los resultados:

– Mejora la calidad de la muestra

–Permite la realización de muestras adicionales o pruebas moleculares para la identificación de Virus del papiloma humano

Desventajas de la citología tradicional:

  1. Exceso o escasez de células en PAP convencional
  2. El cepillo puede obtener de : 250, 000- 1.2 millones de  células epiteliales
  3. Frotis muy gruesos
  4. Frotis con celularidad variable
  5. Menos del 37.5%-93.5% puede transferirse al portaobjetos, al realizar el frotis; el material restante se queda en las cerdas del cepillo y se tira a la basura
  6. El traspaso de células está sujeto a error, si las células anormales no se distribuyen de forma homogénea por toda la muestra

 

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22 Diciembre, 2017
Bioreferencia

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